There are several villages situated inside and adjacent to the boundaries of the Preah Vihear Protected Forest and the Kulen Promtep Wildlife Sanctuary. Most inhabitants are smallholder farmers who depend on rain-fed paddy or upland rice fields supplemented by small scale animal raising and collection of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) to supply their basic needs. Fish, frogs, eels and other forest products are very important sources of food and cash income. The population within the parks are mostly ethnic Khmer, Lao and Kuoy people and 50.2% of the population is under 18 years old.
Many of these villages have existing agriculture and residential areas within these sites and also use many of the non-timber forest products. Some villages have existed in their present location for a long time and in many cases before the sites were gazetted as a protected forest or protected area.
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